Scansorial Form- this is a body type that is suited to live in the underbrush eating fallen fruits, nuts, succulent shoots and herbs. Animals with this sort of body type have a small size and an anatomy that is suited for quick darting lateral movements that can elude their predators until they burrow underground, in logs or simply stand motionless in the camouflage of the surrounding vegetation.
Semi-Convex Facial Profile- this is a ram-like facial profile that has a thickened bridge of the nose and a slight convex profile of the nose starting below the level of the eyes.
Shank of the Spur- this refers to the shaft that extends from the base of the boot heel out to the rowel. The shank can vary in length and shape and some have a downward curvature, which in Chile was referred to as “cogote de gallo” (rooster neck). Due to the large rowels on Chilean spurs, by definition they also must have long shanks.
Sickle Hocked- this refers to a conformational flaw that is best appreciated when looking at the horse from the side. When a horse is sickle hocked, the obtuse angle between the forearm (tibia) and cannon bone (metatarsus) is smaller than normal. As a result the cannon bones of the hind legs that project themselves downward as the plumb line falls are in fact angled in under the body of the horse. Although most breeds consider any degree of this condition a fault, in stock horses, being mildly sickle hocked is considered an asset as these horses have to work with their haunches well under them. It is important to note that sickle hocks are not a problem of misalignment of the hock (tarsus) and the cannon bone (metatarsus), but rather it’s a problem related to the angle of the hock that unites the intersection of the trajectories of the forearm and cannon bone in the hind leg.
Side Pass- this refers to the gait a horse implements to move sideways by crossing one leg over its counterpart on the opposite side. Well-schooled horses are taught to side pass in order to position the body, but rarely are they asked to perform this discipline. The few that do perform it rarely do so at a speed greater than a trot. Chilean Horses are the world’s best side passers and routinely perform this complex step at a full gallop.
Spear- this is a long lance with a leaf-shaped metal point that has cutting edges. The Spanish term is “pica”.
Splint- the splint bones are two useless bones (the second and fourth rudimentary metacarpal and metatarsal bones) that lie along both sides of the cannon bone (metacarpal and metatarsal bones). These bones are remnants of other toes when equids were multi-toed animals. Strain from poor conformation or trauma can cause injury to these bones or the interosseous ligament that unite them to the cannon bone, which can lead to the placement of reinforcing calcium deposits (exostosis). This is a common problem in Chilean corralero horses, due to the strain of lateral movement and the possibility of interfering with themselves in crossing their legs at high speeds.
Spur Holder- leather support for spur that is strapped over the boot. This started when spurs were used by barefooted or sandaled huasos, and their use was later motivated as a means of supporting the large-roweled and shanked spur used by the huaso in the 19th century.
Spur Rowel- this is the rotating star-shaped piece at the end of the spur shank that makes contact with the horse when the rider applies spur pressure. For the Chilean huaso, the spur rowel must be at least 3.5 in. (8.89 cm), and it is common for them to be as big as 4.33 in (11cm) in diameter, although at times in history the rowel of the Chilean spur has been as big as 7.4 in. (19 cm)
Stampede String- this is the cord that is used to prevent the rider’s hat from flying off in windy conditions. This is a particularly import piece of equipment for the huaso, since his flat-brimmed hat is not at all aerodynamic. During normal use, the stampede string is tightened against the base of the back of the head. When competing on a running horse or in windy conditions, the cord is placed under the chin and tightened on the right side with a slipknot.
Stirrup Leather- this is the leather that is attached to the saddle and from which the stirrups hang. The length of the stirrup leather will determine the bend in the knee of the horseman when riding his horse. Typically, the modern huaso uses one of the shortest stirrup leathers of any saddle horse riding style in the world. Since all huasos use the protective leggings, their saddles do not have any fenders over their stirrup leathers.
Superficial Flexor Tendons- these are the tendons that attach the superficial digital flexor muscle in the back of the forearm and the lateral parts of the third phalanx. This tendon is clearly visible and felt on the back portion of the cannon bones. It is a tight, flat band of support when the leg is on the ground, and is loose and flexible when the legs are suspended.
Surcingle- this is a piece of equipment that is used for ground training, as it fastens around the girth of the horse like a cinch, but it possesses various rings that can be used to attach fixed reins to a cavesson or bridle, or they can also be used to pass long reins through them for driving or longing with two reins.
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