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Tail Set- refers to where the tail inserts into the buttocks of the horse. Although the tail set usually mirrors the angle of the croup, you can have a sloping croup with a high tail set. They are usually described as high, low or medium tail sets.


Tail Twitching- nervous, vigorous and abrupt swishing of the tail that is not permitted in Chilean reining competitions. Early in Chilean Horse training it is emphasized that the horses not twitch their tail.


Tapetum- a layer of cells behind the retina that reflect light back to the retina, so that under dim lighting conditions, the retina gets a second opportunity at registering the small amount of light that enters the eye. The tapetum offers improved night vision to horses, which in fact can see better than humans at night.


Tarsus Valgus (Knock Hocked) - this is an anterior misalignment of the forearm (tibia) and the cannon bone (third metatarsal), whereby an acute angle is formed on the exterior portion of the leg. Typically, a horse that is tarsus valgus looks to have his hocks closer to the midline of his body and he stands base wide with his hooves farther than normal to each other. When such a horse is in motion, the point of his hock will be pulled outward when the hind leg is in the weight bearing phase.


Tarsus varus (bow legged) - this is an anterior misalignment of the forearm (tibia) and the cannon bone (third metatarsal), whereby an angle is formed on the interior portion of the leg.  Typically, a horse that is tarsus varus looks to have his hocks very far away from the midline of his body and he stands base narrow with his hooves closer than normal to each other. When such a horse is in motion, the point of the hock will be pulled inward when the hind leg is in the weight bearing phase.


Tendon Synovitis- this condition is the inflammation of the tendon sheath, which is initially accompanied by a tendon synovial fluid distension. Eventually, there can be an exaggerated proliferation of synovial membrane cells causing a solid mass in the area. In the Chilean Rodeo horse, this is most commonly seen in the sheath of the lower part of the superficial flexor tendon right above the fetlock.


Three-Point Seat- this is the classical “clothespin” seat of dressage, wherein the rider balances himself on a triangle formed by his two seat bones and the part of the crotch over the ischium bone that unites the right and left side of the pelvis, while making full contact with his entire leg on the saddle due to the use of a long stirrup leather.


Tobiano- the tobiano horse generally has white on the top line that spreads itself downwards on the body. Most commonly, the white is found over and around the withers. The tobiano usually has a dark head, neck, chest and flanks. Any white on the head is usually the common stars, snips, strips or blazes seen in solid-colored horses. The legs are most always white from the hocks and knees downward, and never would a true tobiano have more than one or two solid-colored legs. Tobianos usually have manes and tails that are of mixed white and solid colors. The spots on the tobiano are usually of regular patterns and often oval in shape. Tobianos generally outnumber overos four to one in the spotted breeds, as the tobiano gene has a dominant effect over solid color genes when both are present, while the overo gene is a recessive gene that requires that both parents pass it on in order for the overo condition to be seen in the offspring. In the Chilean breed only the overo pattern is seen. Glass eyes are more common in overos but they can also be present in tobianos.


Tongue-Tie- this is a piece of equipment that is used to tie the tongue down to the jaw of the horse, in order to inhibit its movement while being ridden. This is generally done with a strip of cloth, but some people also use women’s hose and there are also some practical commercial tongue-ties made of rubber. In the racehorse industry, this is commonly used during racing to help prevent a horse from “flipping his palate”. In the Chilean Horse industry, it is used in the initial phases of training to teach the horse to not play with his tongue while he is being ridden, as many young horses like to put their tongue over the bit, which is not only distracting to his concentration, but it also makes the bit more severe as it lies on top of the bars of the mouth with no cushion from the tongue.


To Read Cattle- this refers to the ability to predict the cattle’s intentions and actions by understanding their body language.


Trigger- this is the translation of the term the Chileans use to describe the tuft of mane that they leave over and in front of the withers of their horses. From the part where the trigger ends to the back of the ears, the mane is roached, usually leaving about an inch of hair on the crest of the neck.


Trotters- this was one of the three types of horse that were bred and raised in Chile before the war of independence. This was always the most numerous of the three horse types, as the trotters were typically the warhorses, the stock horses, the plow and buggy horses and the wheat thrashing horses, so they were needed for much of the blue collar work in the colony. After the struggle of emancipation, the trotter was selected as the horse type that would represent the new republic, as it was without a doubt the “people’s horse”.


True Horse Breed- these are related groups of horses that display and transmit specific characteristics that are best suited for a particular type of function and most adapted to a certain kind of environment. Many registered breeds would not qualify as true horse breeds because they have a wide variety of acceptable types, or because they have been simply selected on the basis of performance abilities or hair coat colors. On the other hand, many groups of isolated wild or feral horses may be good examples of true horse breeds without the influence of man.


Tuft of Mane- in the Chilean Horse, this refers to the part of the mane that is not roached that lies over the withers and lies over the left side of the shoulder. In Spanish it is known as “gatillo” (trigger), and it serves as a means of helping a rider mount as well as permitting an observer to judge the amount and quality of the horse’s mane.


Two-Point Seat- this is the typical forward seat where the rider balances himself with the two inner parts of his knees and lower thighs while he raises his buttocks away from the seat of the saddle or lightly brushes it in a rhythmic fashion during the gallop. In the two-point seat the stirrup leathers are shortened in order to have more of a bent knee position that when standing in the stirrups assures the buttocks is removed from the seat of the saddle. When the rider sits the seat in a chair-sitting position and then balances himself on his buttocks, it is referred to a two-point half seat.


Two-Tracking- this is an exercise by which the horse moves in a 45-degree angle forward and to one side, which requires some forward lateral motion while crossing the legs in an effort to simultaneously move in both directions. It is called two-tracking because the forelegs and hind legs have a different alignment and thus leave two different tracks on sandy footing.


Type of the Horse- this can describe general physical traits that may be common to one breed, various breeds, unregistered homogeneous groups of horses or even individual horses that do not belong to any specific breed.

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