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Ventral- directed towards or situated on the belly surface. Figuratively it can simply refer to the lower or underside part of the anatomy. This term is the opposite of dorsal.


Vertical Neck Flexion- this refers to flexing the neck at the poll, or better stated at the atlas, causing the horse to put his facial profile in a more vertical position. Horses should learn to do lateral neck flexions before trying to tackle vertical neck flexions.

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