Caballero- this signifies a gentleman, but literally it means a man that is competent with a horse, since it was expected that all nobility learn the equestrian arts. In military missions the “caballeros” were the soldiers assigned the privileged position astride a horse.


Cabildo- this refers to a town council.


Cala de Caballo- this is a Mexican reining competition.


Camino Real- the Royal Road in colonial days that divided central Chile in east-west sections as the road ran north-south from Limache to the Cachapoal River. Later, it would extend from the city of Río Serena to the Bío Bío River. Eventually, this was extended throughout most of the country as part of the Pan-American Highway


Cardoon- perennial thistle related to the artichoke that is found throughout central Chile. The base of the step can be cleaned and cut up and served as a salad.


Carpincho- the scientific name is Hydrochaerus hydrochaeris. It is the world’s largest rodent that is .50 m (19.7 in.) tall, 1.30 m (40.3 in.) long and weighs up to 60 kg (132 lbs.). Caprpincho hide is perhaps considered to be the most prestigious saddle covering, as it is soft and tough, and due to the fact the animal is aquatic in nature the leather also has water repellent qualities.

 Carreras a la Chilena- this refers to bush track racing over short distances. At times, races were run with a post fence in between the contestants, to simply determine the faster of the two competitors. However, a more popular race was the “crowding race” where contestants shared a common path that was either lined or elevated. The object was to be the first past the finish line, but it was fair play to lean into your competitor and try and push him off the path while in the race. This once again added the criterion of lateral strength to the formula of speed, something that has always been appreciated by the Chilean horsemen.

Castas- in Mexico this word is used to describe non-whites. 


Castellano horses- these are descendents of the Fieldón horses that were selected for an ambling gait but were larger in size and had a valiant character, as they were the ideal warhorses of the times. Because of their smooth gait and willing disposition, they could cover more distance in relocating armies to new confrontations, and arrived less weary after the trip. They were described as around 1.52 m (almost 15 hands) in height, with a medium build, a wide forehead with a straight facial profile, small, well-spaced ears, a short neck, a short back and a fairly flat croup, an abundance of mane, good leg conformation and feather on the fetlocks.


Caudillos- these are the local political leaders that were backed by private militias.


Cavalos Crioulos- a Portuguese name for Brazilian Criollos that are considered part of the same Criollo breed that exists in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay.


Cavvy- this is a band of saddle horses. This term comes from the Spanish word of “caballada”.


Cazuela – a soup that can be made with beef, chicken, duck or turkey, but all varieties are combined with potatoes, corn on the cob, yams, pumpkins and rice, forming a tasty stew with lots of broth.


Chamanto- this is a reversible short dress poncho with embroidered designs.


Chambergo or Guarapón hats- straight-brim and low-crown hats used by both the Spanish residents and criollos in the colonial days of Chile. It is possible that these hat styles influenced the wider brim of the huaso hat that was popularized in subsequent years.


Chaparreras- these are full-length leather leg protectors or chaps, which are also referred to as “chaperajos” or “chaparejos”.


Charky- dried jerky most commonly made from horsemeat, but could also be from beef, donkey or camelids.


Charrerías- Mexican event that showcases the skills of the Mexican Charros mostly around their prowess with a lariat, but also tailing steers (“colear”), riding bareback broncs (“salto de la muerte”) and reining competitions (“cala”).


Chicotera- quirt that in the Chilean tack is incorporated to the reins much like in the romal reins of California.


Chinas- they are the female counterpart to the huaso. Chinas represent women from the countryside of central Chile. Most noted as the dance partner of the huaso in the cueca. The queens and princesses of the Chilean Rodeo will be dressed as chinas and the win, place and show paired teams of every Rodeo are obligated to dance the cueca with the rodeo queen and her court.


Chinchilla- its scientific name is Chinchilla brevicaudata. This is a small rodent that inhabits the land around the plains and ravines (quebradas) in the arid northern portions of Chile and Bolivia. The Chinchilla is 330 mm (13 in) long, with a tail of an additional 100 mm (4 in.). They weigh more or less 900 grams (about 2 lbs.). A century ago, it made those regions famous, as a large number of this animal’s gray pelts with the softness of down feathers were exported for the clothing industry.


Chiqueros- these are classification pens.


Chiripá- these are baggy diaper-like pants used by South American natives that were adopted by the Argentine gauchos.


Choca- a metal can (often an instant coffee can) that has makeshift wire handles twisted around it in order to place it on the rocks of the fireplace to heat water to make coffee, tea or mate. This can was tied to a pack horse or a riding horse and the rhythmic metal sound was a reassuring tune to the drovers and their horses.


Chupalla- a Cordoban styled flat-brimmed straw hat that was originally made from the achupalla plant that was very common in the Chilean countryside. Nowadays, the chupalla is made from rice or wheat straw. Traditionally, the “chupalla” is considered the summertime headwear of the huaso, while the felt hat of the same style is used in the winter.


Chusca- this is fine silten footing in sections of the Atacama Desert that can be between 2-6 inches deep. When traversing it, a dust cloud is lifted that is irritating to the respiratory system and penetrates every orifice of the body.


Cinchada- refers to the sport of “the cinch game” that was a competition in which two horses standing tail-to-tail had their saddles tied together with a rawhide lariat. A tug of war commenced and continued until one of the horses was finally able to pull the other backwards past a designated line.


Circus maximus- this was the largest horseracing arena in the Roman Empire that was located in Rome. This was a U-shaped arena that had a division down the middle with a turning post on each end. The footing was sand that was often colored to provide a more dramatic effect. Its dimensions were 580 m x 79 m (1,900 ft x 260 ft.) and all along the sides of the arena there was tiered seating that could accommodate 200,000 spectators.


Clavillos- these are nail-like decorations in the design of contemporary Chilean spurs that are meant to remind us when nails protruded out of a round disk at the union of the shank and the fork. These metal pins had the function of snagging both ends of a small chain that went around the bridge of the boot to prevent the spur from dropping down from the desired position on the heel.


Cobija- this is a poncho used by the llaneros. Its equivalent in Chile would be the “manta larga”.


Cobra- this is a term used in Spain for a team of thrashing mares that work side by side, tied together by cords that attach to thick leather collars. The horseman works on one end of the cobra and uses a long whip and verbal commands to make the cobra circle around him in an orderly fashion like the second hand of a watch.


Colear- this refers to the sport of “tailing” bulls. The act by which a rider rides next to a fleeing bovine and wraps the tail around his leg and then asks the horse to gallop ahead at an angle whereby the bovine’s hindquarters are pulled off to one side, causing it to lose its balance and fall to the ground. When done in pairs, the second rider is expected to dismount and quickly castrate the bull before it has an opportunity to get back on its feet. The Venezuelan strongman José Antonio Paez was adept at tailing bulls in public.


Collera- this is a paired team of two horses and two riders that participate in the Chilean Rodeo.


Corbatín- this used to be the style for rural people to top off the poncho with a loose kerchief. It was tied in a knot that hung over the collarbone, much like the also largely forgotten custom of the North American cowboy bandana. This is still very much a part of the dress code of the Argentine gauchos and Mexican charros. Unfortunately, the corbatín and the poncho are no longer a representative part of the huaso attire.


Corral de aparta- this is a cutting corral that generally had the capacity to hold 150 to 200 head.

 Corralero- theoretically, this is any horse that participates in the sport of Chilean Rodeo. In the Chilean Rodeo Federation, only registered Chilean Horses are allowed to participate. In other, more amateurish organizations, the event is open to any horse but in Chile 99 percent of these horses are also registered Chilean Horses. As the sport of Chilean Rodeo becomes more international, it is probable that corraleros from other breeds will also exist.

Corvo- this is a curved knife that the Chilean huasos typically carried tucked behind the back portion of their belt in the 19th century and earlier.


Criadero- this is a term used before the name of all contemporary Chilean Horse breeding farms. The term Hacienda was also used by some breeders in the old days, but the word “Haras” would never be used in regard to a Chilean Horse breeding farm, as it would denote purebred Thoroughbred production.


Criollo (human) - this term originally meant American-born from pure Spanish descendants. Eventually, the word came to mean the native populace of mixed and unknown genealogical proportions.


Criollo (horse breed) - this is a stock horse that originates from the free roaming "baguales" in the pampas and is associated with all the gaucho cultures in Argentina, Southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. It is recognized as one registered breed of common origin and history, and has become the national breed in all these countries.


Criollo (horse type) - this is a term that describes a low-quality native horse of unknown genealogy.


Cuarta- this is an old practical Spanish measurement used to measure horse height. It was calculated by a hand span (from outstretched thumb to pinky) that was estimated to be approximately 20 cm or 8 in. An English hand span was usually said to be ¾ of a foot or 9 in. (22.5cm). This measurement is the counterpart of the English “hand” that was measured by the width of the palm and was estimated to be approximately 4 in. or 10 cm.


Cuartago- this is a low quality peasant pony of small stature.


Cuevanos- Chilean Horses that descend from the Hacienda El Parral of Pedro de la Cuevas.