Jaca- in the past, this term referred to large ponies that were less than 1.47 m (14.2 hands) and thus did not qualify as “horses”. Usually, they were considered to be athletic, very muscular, hardy and easy-keeping equines with a low basal metabolism. The contemporary meaning in Spain refers to horses used in Doma Vaquera, a type of stock horse reining competition. Nowadays, the “jacas” are all of horse stature, as they are usually Andalusian (more correctly called P.R.E.- an abbreviation for Spanish Purebred), Anglo Arabs, or “tres razas” (a combination of Andalusian, Thoroughbred and Arab). Jacas are always shown with clipped forelocks and a clipped bob or short braided tail.


Jaca de Fantasía- unusually small jacas that were usually children’s or beginner’s mounts.


Juego de cañas –this refers to the “cane game” that was a popular equestrian war game in the colonial days. This contest of Moorish origin involved two teams that took turns at the offensive and defensive positions. The offensive team had light cane lances with which they all simultaneously charged furiously at the defenders that had to stand their ground, protected only by small leather shields called “adargas”. The offender tried to hit the opponent with the weak lances, or at the very least smash them against the opponent’s shield. The defender tried to catch the symbolic lances in the air, or block and dodge them.