Taba- horse or cattle anklebones that were tossed by gamblers betting on a resulting head or tails that determined a winner. The taba was the predecessor of dice games that are played by rural populations of Chile and Argentina.


Talonera- spur holders originated for the workers in the colonial days that either went barefoot, used a “bota de potro” or sandals, all of which offered no option of where to hang the spurs. As the Chilean spur evolved into one with such a large rowel and long shank, the spur holders were used over the Chilean huaso booty. This piece of equipment made the large heavy spur much more stable and also helped increase the extension of the spur as rider leg position shifted further to the front of the horse.


Tapaderos- these are leather foot guards that covered the anterior portion of the stirrup.


Tejas- red clay tile shingles used on roofs that were made of baked clay that traditionally was molded over the artisan’s thigh, making one end narrower than the other and thus facilitating it to overlap themselves when mounted on the rooftop.


Termino- an outward arc of the forelegs in the suspension phase of the stride that, seen from the front, makes the horse appear to be paddling forward. This was very much a part of the Peruvian Paso breed, but was also seen in parade horse trotters that were termed “de brazo” or “Brazeadores”.


Terna- this is a Mexican competition that is very similar to team roping.


Terreno- this is a horse that met the height requirements to be called a horse but was considered “rocin” because he lacked the high-stepping gait required by nobility.


Tirar el gallo- this refers to the sport of “pull the rooster”. This was an event in which the riders’ wrists were tied together and the competition would persist until one of the riders was pulled out of the saddle.


Topeando- this refers to the sport of “bumping”. In the old days, this was a sport whereby two horses were pitted side-by-side, facing a long, thick pole that lay out perpendicular to the equine contestants. The pole was on legs that raised it to horse chest height. The horses would lean into each other with their shoulders, with the objective of pushing the competitor all the way to the end of the pole. This competition strengthened the muscles used in the lateral work of the rodeos. Nowadays, the term refers to working with a bumping lead steer to develop proper corralero posture.


Topero- this is a gentle steer that has been taught to lead by a rope that is placed around its horns. It is later taught to move away independently from a driver holding a short pike, and eventually it will move on its own in circles at the desired speed and direction. The breed of preference is the Holstein, since it is very agile, energetic and possesses a large angular frame. A good topero is a very valuable animal, since it is a key player in the training of the Chilean Horse. The good ones will walk, trot and gallop slightly ahead of the horse and rider that are driving them and not be fazed by the work of the corralero horse training at its side.


Toros de lidia- this refers to Iberian breeds of “fighting bulls”. Spanish breeds of cattle are specifically bred for the production of fighting bulls. There are various breeds of different colors and equally aggressive temperaments, of which the Miura is probably the best known.


Torres del Paine National Park- this is a 181,414 hectare (448,279 acre) park that should soon expand to 242,242 hectares (598,587 acres). It was made a constituent of the International Network of Biosphere Reserves by a resolution that was implemented by UNESCO in 1978. The park is in the region of Magallanes, located 400 km (248.5 mi.) from Punta Arenas in the south of Chile. The park is divided into eight sections that contain an abundance of wildlife, lakes, glaciers that break off forming large icebergs in a navigable bay and a unique mountainous formation of granite and sedimentary rock. In the vicinity, the Mylodon Cave (once inhabited by a giant sloth -- Mylodon darwini) can be visited, and there have been important archaeological findings of the existence of prehistoric communities that existed 12-13,000 years ago. Within the park, evidence of these ancient societies can be seen in the form of rock art. Of special interest to the topic of this book, there is ample evidence that the area was at one time home to the equid Onohippidium saldiasi.


Trashumantes- these are nomadic shepherds that move their flocks around in search of better grazing opportunities. In Spain, it was basically the Sorian people that moved back and forth to regions of Aragon. Since these shepherds used “Mesteño” horses, their yearly migration south led to many crosses with the Andalusian breed.


Tres Razas- a mixture of Andalusian, Thoroughbred and Arabian that is popular for Doma Vaquera competition. Usually, it’s a product of an Andalusian stallion on an Anglo-Arab mare.


Trilla- this is a group of thrashing mares. Small trillas were made up of 25-50 mares and large trillas could have as many as 100 mares that worked simultaneously.


Trochador- this was a native stock horse of Iberian origin from the llanos of Colombia and Venezuela. They are known for their “pasitrote”, a type of comfortable riding broken pace. These horses are well adapted to the hot and humid tropical environment and are excellent in aquatic conditions as well.


Trote de Martillo- this is literally a “hammer trot”. This was a specific gait selected for in colonial parade horses. It had a lot of knee action and the foreleg was brought down with the straight forceful spike that made little forward progress but was very demanding and showy.